New research reveals previously hidden features of plant genomes

An international team led by the Plant Phenotyping and Imaging Research Centre (P2IRC) at the University of Saskatchewan (USask) and researchers at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) has decoded the full genome for the black mustard plant -- research that will advance breeding of oilseed mustard crops and provide a foundation for improved breeding of wheat, canola and lentils.


The team, co-led by P2IRC researchers Andrew Sharpe and Isobel Parkin, used a new genome sequencing technology (Nanopore) that results in very long "reads" of DNA and RNA sequences, providing information for crop breeding that was previously not available. The results are published today in Nature Plants.



"This work provides a new model for building other genome assemblies for crops such as wheat, canola and lentils.

We now know that we can get the same quality of genomic data and level of information about genetic variation for these important national and international crops. This means we can make breeding more efficient because we can more easily select genes for specific desired traits."


Sharpe said his team is already using this software platform in the Omics and Precision Agriculture Lab (OPAL) at the USask Global Institute for Food Security (GIFS) to sequence larger and more complex crop genomes.


Black mustard (Brassica nigra), commonly used in seed form as a cooking spice, is grown on the Indian sub-continent and is closely related to mustard and canola crops grown in Canada. The research provides a clearer, "higher resolution" view of the plant's genes and gives researchers and breeders a more defined view of which genes are responsible for which traits.


The resulting gene assembly for black mustard also helps explain how the black mustard genome differs from those of its close crop relatives -- such as cabbage, turnip and canola.


The team also uncovered the first direct evidence of functional centromeres, structures on chromosomes essential for plant fertility, and detected other previously hard to identify regions of the genome. This knowledge provides a foundation for improving crop production.

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